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Substitutes plasma, and other blood components
The groupSubstitutes plasma, and other blood components intended to fill BCC (see Regidratanta), the preservation of its agregantny state replace certain functions blood (leikocitarnaya mass preparations plasma cells count), the vodno-elektrolitnogo balance onkoticski blood pressure, KHS correction. Regarding the group used as a detoksiciruth (see Detoksicirute means, including ComSP) with the capacity to link various toxic substances and accelerate their withdrawal from the body, and to reduce agregatia uniform of blood in the capillaries.
Indeed plazmozameniteli perform only one function, the maintenance of a BCC. They must meet a number of requirements :
not pass through gistogematicalkie barriers and do not enter the receptacles in fabrics;
- Maintain adequate and stable KISR pressure;
have a minimum and extended metabolism accompanied by the formation of neutral products, or metabolites, starting at the usual reaction of the exchange, or filtruthan intensively with urine;
- not have antigenic properties and pirogennostew.
The alternatives include plasma plasma blood (natural plazmozamenitel) dekstrana and solutions salt electrolytes (christalloidov solutions).
Plasma contains all the components of the liquid portion of human blood, but requires special storage and care for the donor organism in antigennom regard.
Dekstrana-surface polysaccharides culture of bacteria, their antigenic properties. Dekstrana may have varying degrees of polymerization and the different molecular mass; of them can be obtained plazmozameshchate solutions various functional purposes. Solutions containing dekstrana high molecular mass is used mainly as a gemodinamicakih funds and the lower molecular weight, as correctors rock properties of blood. With the current blood dekstrana increase onkoticescoe pressure and the increased movement of the fluid in the tissues into the blood. They raise diurez than to detoxification processes. Because in the body partial hydrolysis, dekstrana displayed in the main memory (kidney failure is a limitation to apply).
Solutions christalloidov (Ringera, Ringera-azett, Hartmann) contain various combinations of salt (sodium chloride, sodium hydrogen, sodium acetate, calcium chloride, potassium chloride), and glucose in concentrations close to the physiological. The salt solutions designed to correct dehydration, electrolyte content, the concentration of hydrogen ions, and thus KHS (see regulators vodno-elektrolitnogo balance and KHS). In the absence of a significant loss of electrolytes to correct gipovolemii impose 5% (isotonic) dekstrozy solution.
A number of pathological conditions (occlusion oesophagus, the intake of soft, heavy intoxication, etc.) operations on the stomach and gut require injecting nutrients, especially protein. Plazmozameshchate funds (albumin 20-25% dekstroza 20-50% solution) can be used in such situations as preparations for parenteral nutrition (see Tools enteralnogo and parenteral nutrition). Protein (see proteins and amino acids) substratno for many enzyme processes dekstroza-energy exchange. However, it should be borne in mind that injecting proteins can lead to the absence of organism development anaphylacticakih reactions with repeated injections.
Substitutes plasma, and other blood components used primarily for the treatment and prevention of shock different origins, AD normalization and improvement gemodinamicakih indicators. They have been used in krovopotere, burns, and other conditions involving dehydration and gipovolemiei, for the prevention and post-traumatic embolism, intoksikatziah in different genesis. Anti dekstrozy (20-40% solution) are also correct gipoglikemicakih states. To parenteral nutrition these drugs are used for current consumption and the body of regenerative processes in the cells, when food naturally for a number of reasons it is impossible.