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Hormones hypothalamus, pituitary, gonadotropin and their antagonists
The groupГипоталамо-гипофизар��ая system is the regulator of the majority of endocrine glands. In Hypothalamus worked rilizing hormones of stimulation or braking incretii pituitary hormones. In particular, increases tirorelin liberatiou tireotropina, gonadorelin - gonadotropinov (фолликулостимулирую��его luteinizirutego and hormones). As gonadorelin, and its synthetic homologues (nafarelin, triptorelin, etc.) used for the diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition sexual glands; their high-dose suppress the secretion gonadotropinov-used in a number of malignant diseases (such as cancer of prostate gland).
In gipofize between three share : front, middle and rear; First two gland, the third neiroglialland origin. The forward rate main Pain hormones (ACTG, somatotropony, Thyrotropic, follikulostimuliruty, luteiniziruty and lactogenny), in the middle - меланоцитстимулирующ ий (all three types - alpha, beta, gamma), in the back-and oxytocin vazopressin. Recent formed hypothalamic nuclei (paraventrikulyarnoe and supraopticescoe) and aksonam pass Gray, which inkretiruet them in the blood.
The basic premise of the oxytocin is a stimulating effect on the uterine musculature. This property is so that the drugs that have an effect often called oksitoticakimi means. Oxytocin and its synthetic analogues (demoksitoqin) widely used in акушерско-гинекологи��еской , in the lack of functional Oxytocics.
Vazopressin or antidiureticeski hormone, in the close to oksitotino but somewhat different content and location amino acid residues. The effect of vasopressin is to regulate water reabsorbtion distalnami divisions kidney channel. Increasing permeability channel, it promotes reabsorbtion water and reduce diureza. In high doses vazopressin has a stimulating effect on the smooth muscle (receptacles, the uterus and intestines). Vazopressinom induced increase AD due to the direct action of miotroponam to arteriola and capillaries. In clinical practice, along with a vazopressinom use its synthetic analogues and homologues (desmopressin, terlipressin).
Gonadotropin are belkov-peptidnami hormones and stimulating the development and function of male and female genital glands. Synthesis and secretia gonadotropinov occurs under the action gipotalamicakih neirogormonov (rilizing-factorov). In front of pituitary Three hormone affecting the sexual glands : фолликулостимулирующ ий (opened), luteiniziruty (LG), prolactin. Opened contributes to the development of ovarian cancer and plant them follikulov, it is also necessary to demonstrate the LG, in addition, he spermatogenez increases in the male sex glands. LG women contributed to the developed hair in a yellow body and prolong the lifetime of the latter. Among men, the hormone stimulates the interstitial cells testes (it is also referred to as hormone boost interstiziale cells), caused by the activation spermatogeneza due mainly to the increased synthesis of testosterone, it has also contributed to lowering inflammation in kriptorhizme; under the influence of the hormone increases the blood cholesterol; it has jiromobilizuti effect. Prolactin increases hormonal function yellow body and progesterone activity increases secretion of milk in the mammary glands in the postpartum period.
In clinical practice, as a drug with activity opened apply gonadotropin Foundation (menotropin), as well as its homologues (urofollitropin, follitropin alpha, follitropin beta). Gonadotropin Foundation obtained from the urine of women in menopause. Drug with activity LG is gonadotropin horioniceski, derived from the urine of pregnant women.
Antigonadotropina suppress the gipofizarnah gonadotroponah hormones (LG and opened). In connection with the operation of antigonadotroponam are used to treat endometriosis (danazol) with concomitant infertility, benign tumor breast (fibrokistosny mastit etc.), fifth paragraph syndrome ginekomastii and other diseases where the blockade has incretii gonadotropinov.
Other hormones Pain in the front or activate functions of the respective glands, or a direct impact on the exchange Trials. ACTG and its analogues (kortikotropin, tetrakozaktid) in the cortex layer napochechnikov increases synthesis glucocorticoids, somatotropin, the growing skeleton and the whole body (it is controlled through gipotalamusom products somatostatin, oppressive liberatiou growth hormone; in medicine is a synthetic somatostatin - lanreotid, oktreotid) tireotropin-stimulated secretion tiroksina, lactogenny development of the mammary glands and lactation.