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Detoksicirute means, including ComSP
The groupThis group of products includes medicinal and other funds that are used in the various methods of detoxification. Space is a set of therapeutic activities with a view to ending the exposure to toxic substances, and their removal from the body. Achievement of this goal is a large number of methods aimed at stimulation of the natural detoxification, as well as artificial and antidotna desintoksikatini therapy.
Methods to enhance physiological detoxification, the clean blood, big diurez, regulating activity of enzymes a hyper or hypothermia, etc. They used to vomited (see Amphetamine eye syndrome, including vomited), and laxatives (see Laxatives funds) means preparations vodno-elektrolitnuu to load (see regulators vodno-elektrolitnogo balance and KHS), osmotic dioretiki and saluretiki (see Dioretiki) as well as funds from other pharmaceutical groups. It should be noted that the stimulation of natural detoxification only if a eliminiruth functions of the body's systems.
Man-made space based on the breeding, dialysis and medicines. Methods of it are afereticalkie (breeding and replacement of the blood (lymph), dializnae and filtration (diagnostic, plazma, limfodializ, Ultraviolet and gemofiltration, peritonealny and intestinal dialysis, etc.), Sorption (diagnostic, plazma limfosorbece, enterosorbece etc.), methods fisioguemoterapii (Uf-oblucenie and magnetic processing blood). The methods of artificial detoxification is a multi-pharmacological capabilities of the krove- and plazmozamenitelm (see replacement plasma, and other blood components), dializirutm fluids adsorbirutm means-sorbents (see Antatsida and adsorbents), etc.
Prominent at the detoxification of the use of antidotes. Antidote, according to the experts of the International Chemical Council WHO, is a product with the ability to eliminate or mitigate the effects of specific xenobiotika by its immobilization, including helatoobrazovatelami, reducing concentrations (for example, PCAM), or resistance at the level of efficient systems (pharmacological antagonists).
Given that the specific ComSP exist for a small number of xenobiotics and the antidotny the complex and diverse systematization antidotnykh funds is conditional. In clinical toxicology, it is considered desirable for the following groups antidotes :
1. Sorbents, which are based on physical processes (coal, tar, etc.). Thus, 1 g of activated carbon sorbiruet to 800 mg of morphine or 700 mg barbitala or 300-350 mg other barbiturates or ethanol.
2. Chemical (tokshikotropona) obezvrezivate poison as a result of chemical reaction (reductants, oxidants, helatoobrazovateli, etc.).
Helatoobrazovateli used in the poisoning of metals and metalloids. Calcium dinatrieva salt этилендиаминтетрааце тата form stable complexes with two and trehvalentnami metals (lead, cadmium, copper, zinc), which show aired. Deferoxamine is helatoobrazouatelem for ions of iron (Fe ^ 3 +), and D-penitsillamin (monotiolovy helatoobrazovatel) for the ions of copper, lead, bismuth, and arsenic. Unitiol forms mercaptans - complexes with heavy metals associated with tiolovmi enzymes (to remove heavy metals from tissues).
3. ComSP forming in the body compounds with a high affinity to toksikantu (amilnitrit, methylene blue, sodium nitrite). These funds are used in the poisoning metgemoglobinoobrazovatelami, incl. cyanide. Methylene blue plasma of becoming discoloured lakometilenovu form that is able to restore trehvalentnoe iron metgemoglobina in dwuhvalentnoe, i.e. metgemoglobin turn in the trailer.
4. Biochemical (metabolic, toxico-kineticeskie), as well as the ability to modify the metabolism poison. Ethanol enters the rapid interaction with alkildegidrogenaza hinders transformations methanol and ether formation of toxic metabolites. Acetylcysteine prevents formation gepatotoksicski metabolita with paracetamol overdose or long-term appointment last.
Pharmacological antagonists competing with students in action on enzymes, receptors and physiological system. Medicines of this group are predominantly in the sinaptotroponam products antagonistic type of action. Representatives of specific antagonists are flumazenil (benzodiazepines poisoning), atropine (m-holinomimetikov overdose, poisoning organophosphorus compounds), esmolol (overdose beta-adrainoretseptorov agonist), nalorfin and naloxone (overdose agonist opioid receptors). The group pharmacological antagonists also aminostigmin, glukagon, metoclopramide, pyridoxine, thiamine, riboksin etc. Using pharmacological antidotes to pain many, but not all, symptoms of intoxication because antagonism is usually incomplete. In addition, the competitive nature of the antagonism appointment antidotes in high doses in excess of the concentration of a substance causing poisoning, that can be accompanied by the development of additional side effects.
Antidotnaya efficient therapy in the early phase toksikogenna acute poisoning (subject to fair клинико-лабораторног�� diagnosis of intoxication), and plays a significant role in the states of irreversibility in acute poisoning.
6. Immunological ComSP. Antitoksica immunotherapy is of the utmost importance for poisoning animals poisons, bites snakes and insects. It is carried out using antitoksicskih Serum (protivozmeinaya, protivokarakurtovaya, etc.). In recent years is a monovalent antidigoxinova serum poisoning digoxinom. The disadvantages of the group antidotes is highly effective in a later (in 3-4 hours after the poisoning) and the possibility of arginine.