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Macro and micro
The groupMineral substances, along with vitamins and other biologically active substances are mandatory elements in the normal course of the life of the human body. They are necessary to maintain the internal consistency of the body acid-base equilibrium and water exchange, etc. Need rights in minerals normally covers income from food (with the rational balanced nutrition). However, in certain pathological conditions, pregnancy, physical work, violations elektrolitnogo balance errors nutritional additional quantities of mineral substances. Ensure flow in the body amounts macro-and micronutrients using containing products. Some of them include individual compounds (drugs iron, calcium, potassium, magnesium, fluorine, etc.), others are set often in combination with vitamins.
Iron is an indispensable element, and is a part of hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, participates in a number of окислительно-восстан��вительных reactions play an important role in the blood. The body iron comes with food. Drawn mainly gastrointestinal bleeding. Need organism in the gland enhanced during growth, pregnancy, krovopoteriah (including during menstruation). The iron may be insufficient intake in food (human nutrition, etc.), with ahlorgidrii, chronic diarrhea, after gastrektomii, in krovopoteriah, including gastrointestinal artistic methods, associated with gastric ulcers stomach and duodenal ulcer, etc. The lack of the necessary amount of iron in the body is associated with anaemia (sideropenia), accompanied by a violation of physical development, the overall weakness, lower efficiency, phenomena anemicescoy hypoxia (breath, tachycardia, etc.), stomatitis, glossitom and other pathological phenomena. For the prevention and treatment transmitted (gipohromnah) anaemia using drugs two and trejosnovnogo iron (better absorbed zakisny ion). In clinical practice, using drugs to iron administered orally (iron sulfate, iron fumarat, etc.) and the injection of (iron (III) complex polimaltosny, iron (III) complex poliazomaltosny etc.). Some combinations contain iron with ascorbic acid ulucshauschei intake of iron from the bowel (Tardiferon, Ferropleks etc.).
Potassium is the main vnutricletocnam ion in the same way that the ion vnekletocnam is sodium. The interaction of these ions is important in maintaining izotonicnosti cells. Potassium ions play a significant role in the regulation of the cardiovascular and other systems of the body. Lack of potassium in the body, can lead to dysfunction in the cardiac muscles, the digestive tract (vomiting, diarrhoea, etc.) nervous conductivity and sokratimosti skeletal muscles. Gipokaliemia dispensed with the inadequate flow of potassium food, as well as the application of certain drugs especially dioretikov group tiazidov (gidrohlorotiazida) cardiac glycosides (digoxin), and other products applied potassium (potassium chloride, etc.) for the prevention and treatment of gipokaliemii (relating to the application gidrohlorotiazida and other tiazidov), and intoxicated naperstanki drugs, as well as aritmiah different origin (mostly from elektrolitnami violations and the absolute or relative gipokaliemiei).
Calcium plays a multifaceted role in the life of the body : He participates in the transfer of nerve impulses, in the maintenance of skeletal muscle and smooth muscles, in the attack, in blood clotting, and other physiological processes. The preparations containing calcium salts, are used in various fields of medicine. The level of calcium in the blood plasma by the flow of food, in the state intestines reabsorption in the kidneys, release from the bone. The need for calcium depends on the age, physical condition of the human organism, a pathological processes, etc. The calcium in the body can develop when there is a lack of vitamin D, long admission glucocorticoids, human hormone status (for women in menopause after ovarioektomii). Various pathological processes, including tetania, dysfunction of skeletal and smooth muscles, the cardiovascular system, the blood clotting, osteoporosis are manifestations of a lack of calcium in the body. A major role played by calcium in education and preserving the integrity of bone tissue, therefore calcium products are widely used for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. In therapeutic purposes using different salts of calcium (calcium chloride, calcium gluconate, etc.).
Magnesium is a vital element that is present in all the tissues of the body. Magnesium, as well as potassium, is vnutricletocnam ion. Approximately 99% of magnesium contained in the cells, including most concentrated in the bones (up to 60%). Magnesium content in the blood plasma is less than 1% (of which about 75% in ionic form, the remainder is associated with the blood supply, mainly from albuminom). If necessary (for example, lowering the concentration of magnesium in the blood) Approximately 20-30% magnesium can be extracted from the bone.
Magnesium plays a significant role in many intracellular processes involved in more than 300 enzymatic reactions. ^ Mg 2 + is kofactorom many enzymes catalyzing the reaction of metabolism, especially enzymes involved in the process of making energy. The importance of magnesium in the glikoliza and Atf-zawisimah reactions due to that virtually all glikoliticaskie enzymes need to be proactive in magnesium ions. It is known that the magnesium ions form complexes with phosphate groups intermediate glikoliza products, as well as phosphate groups ATF and the ADF. Many enzymatic reactions, in which the ATF is involved as a donor phosphate group active ATF is a complex with Mg Mg ^ 2 +. Magnesium ions required for the synthesis of protein and nucleic acids, for the operation of Na ^ + K ^ + -atfaza and H ^ + K ^ + -atfaza, for the regulation of excitability of cells. Magnesium reduces neuronal excitability, reduces neuromuscular conductivity governs the nervous, cardiovascular and other systems of the body.
In acute myocardial infarct magnesium offsets the systemic vascular resistance increases coronary blood, warns koronarospazm, serves as cardioprotector, removing vnutricletocny deficit is not only magnesium, and potassium phosphate (at the same time decreasing the calcium and sodium), reducyruet a heart attack. Impact synthesis tromboksana B_2 and oppressing agregatia nine, including тромбининдуцированну ю. Magnesium can be effective for removing convulsing in eclampsia. There is evidence that high concentrations of magnesium in the urine prevent the formation of calcium oxalate and as a consequence kamneobrazovaniu.
Magnesium is derived from food. Need for magnii enhanced during growth and pregnancy, the athletes (about the heavy physical labour and significant losses with magnesium then).
The magnesium may be insufficient flow of magnesium in the body (for example, unbalanced diet, injecting food), human intake or higher loss of magnesium from the body (including the blood diseases, prolonged diarrhea, poliurii etc.). By magnesium deficit may have different endocrine disorders (gipercalziemia, giperaldosteronizm etc.), diabetes, a chronic stress, alcoholism, and medication, including long dioretikov reception.
The effect of magnesium deficiency is the more nervous because Magnesium deficiency is, first and foremost, to a breach of the membrane depolarization muscle cells and neurons.
The symptoms of magnesium deficiency can be muscle convulsions, including gastrocnemius muscles, irritability, sleep disturbance, the state of physical or mental exhaustion, fatigue, rhythm heart of the stomach, etc.
The magnesium diagnostirovati difficult because blood did not give a complete picture of the content of magnesium in the body, The lower the concentration of magnesium in the blood can be offset by the release from the bone. For diagnostic deficit magnesium in the body, using analysis of hair and nails.
Using magnesium products in the medical practice, it is very diverse. Thus, the products of magnesium (to the inside) as a means antatsidnykh (magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium carbonate), incl. in the combined drugs-Almagel, Gastal, Maalox, Rennie and others (see Antatsida and adsorbents).
Some magnesium products (including magnesium sulfate) using brine laxatives (see Laxatives means). The ingestion magnesium sulfate poorly absorbed from the digestive tract increases KISR pressure cause fluid and its way across a gradient of concentration in the opening intestines, which leads to an increase in the contents of the bowel, mehanoretseptorov initiation and on the Strengthening of peristalsis of the bowel over its entire length. In addition, magnesium sulfate is the jelchegonnoe (through nerve irritation suffixes mucous membrane duodenal ulcer).
Anti magnesium used in cardiovascular diseases. For example, injecting magnesium sulphate show paroxizmah ventricular tachycardia type "pirouette", the gipertenziveh krizah, Myocardial infarct, etc. Potassium and magnesium asparaginat (inwards or parenteral) Designate the human heart rhythm, including for the prevention of arrhythmias, in order to prevent toxic effects on the heart of cardiac glycosides (or to their intoxication), and ischemic heart disease (see Antiarrhythmic means).
Anti magnesium, including Magnesium sulfate (dropped) Designate to correct conditions resulting from the shortage of magnesium in the body (prevention and treatment). In clinical practice, and used a combination of drugs containing magnesium (eg Magne B6, which is composed of magnesium and pyridoxine, getting lost magnesium from the blood and its penetration into the cells), etc.
Micronutrients (cobalt, iodine, arsenic, copper, zinc, etc.) needed organism, as is usually the group prosteticescoy many enzymes.