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Vitamins and the vitaminopodobne
The groupVitamins are essential elements required for the growth, development and daily life. Most vitamins in the body, not synthesized, the source is usually the external environment (food of plant and animal origin, micro-normal blood specimens). Lack of vitamins in the body (vitamin deficiency) may be a consequence of the low content of vitamins in food violation of their intake (with pathological changes in the gastrointestinal tract). Increased demand for vitamins in a period of intense growth, old age, pregnancy, breastfeeding, poor physical labour in the intensive sports. In such cases, it was necessary to use vitamins, medicines, by the beginning of whom are vitamins or greater analogues (kofermenta). Vitamin products derived from natural raw materials or synthetic means. Vitamins are divided into two groups : water-soluble and jirorastvorimae.
The water-vitamins are : ascorbic acid (vitamin C), vitamins B-thiamine (vitamin V_1), riboflavin (vitamin V_2) pyridoxine (vitamin V_6), nikotinova acid (vitamin PP), zianokobalamin (vitamin V_12), bioflavonoida (vitamin E), vitamin V_s (folic acid), pantotenova (vitamin V_5) and pangamova (vitamin V_15) acid.
Vitamin V_1 (thiamine) can be found in drojjah, embryos and covers wheat, oats, grechihi, as well as bread, made of flour milling simple. Daily demand adult with vitamin V_1 is 1.5-2 mg. Regarding the vitamin V_1 are not only specific ""антигиповитаминозны ми"" means. They actively affect different function, interfering with the metabolism and nervno-reflectornuu regulation, have an impact on the sport in an holinergicakih neurotransmission. Active (kofermentna) form of vitamin V_1 is its derivative fosfaurilirovannoe - tiamindifosfat (kocarboksilaza) involved in the reactions decarboxylation as part prosteticescoy decarboksilaz and some other enzymes play an important role in uglevonom and energy consumption, especially the nervous and muscular tissues. For medical purposes using drugs containing synthetic thiamine in the form of bromide or chloride, kocarboksilazu, etc. In addition to preventive and therapeutic practices in the hypothetical and avitaminose ( "" beriberi ") testimony to the use of vitamin V_1 are neuritis, sciatica, neuralgia, peripheral obesity. Kocarboksilaza widely used in cardiology. The skin of vitamin V_1 to appoint dermatozah neurogennogo origin irritation different etiology, piodermii, ackzeme, minutes.
Vitamin V_12 (zianokobalamin) tissues of animals that do not occur. His synthesis of naturally only microorganisms. Requirements humans and animals, it provided germline intestines, which zianokobalamin comes to the bodies accumulate in the higher levels in the kidneys, liver, bowel wall. Biologically active (kofermentnami) forms of vitamin V_12 are methyl and 5-дезоксиаденозил-коб��ламин. The main function is to participate in the transfer mobile methyl groups and hydrogen. Zianokobalamin has many pharmacological properties. It is the engine of growth and a driver gemopoaiza has a beneficial effect on the liver and nervous system, activates processes such as blood clotting, the exchange of carbohydrates and lipids, has been involved in the synthesis of amino acids. For use as a drug vitamin V_12 receive microbiological method of synthesis, as well as using drugs, derived from the liver of animals, body capable of deposit. Zianokobalamin is highly effective in helping to zlokacestvennom anemia, postgemorragicakih (transmitted), nutritional and other types of anemia. Assign him with radiation sickness, Hepatic (Hungary disease, hepatitis, cirrhosis), and some diseases of nervous system infections, etc.
Vitamin V_2 (riboflavin) in the human body is primarily to the meat and dairy products. It was widely distributed in plant and animal species and is contained in drojjah, dairy whey, aicnom egg, meat, fish, liver, peas, embryos and steel grains. Received also synthetically. Daily demand for vitamin V_2 adult is 1.5-2 mg. The biological role of vitamin V_2, as well as other water-soluble vitamins, related to its substratnam participation in the education kofermenta. When the body riboflavin works with adenozintrifosforna acid to form and flavin-mononukleotid флавинаденин-динукле��тид. Both are part prosteticescoy flavinproteinov enzyme involved in the transport of protons and regulation окислительно-восстан��вительных processes. Thus riboflavin plays an important role in uglevonom, belkovom and blubber exchange in the maintenance of normal visual function of the eye (which is included with the auditorium purpura and protects the retina from the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation). In therapeutic uses vitamin V_2 apply in hypothetical and ariboflavinose, kongunguite, keratite, cornea ulcer, cataract, in the long-term nezazivath wounds and ulcers, common human nutrition, radiation sickness, fear, the human intestines, Hungary disease and other diseases.
Activities vitamin V_6 the pyridine derivatives : pyridoxine, piridoksal, piridoksamin, different substituents at position 4 (metauxil respectively, formil, methylamine). Vitamin V_6 contained in the plants and the animals, especially in the raw beans, cereals, vegetables, meat, fish, milk, cod liver and cattle, aicnom yolk, drojjah. Daily demand adult, it is 2 mg and partially satisfied foods fusion of bowel function. Pyridoxine (piridoksal, piridoksamin), in doing organism fosfauriliruetsa becomes a piridoksal-5-fosfat and, in this form catalyzes decarbauxilirovanie pereaminirovanie and amino acids. It is essential for the normal functioning of the central and peripheral nervous system. Applied vitamin V_6 in V_6-gipovitaminose, toxicosis pregnant, anemiah, lakopeniah different etiology, disease nervous system (parkinsonism, radikulita, neuritis, neuralgia) some skin diseases, etc.
Folic acid (Vitamin B_c) is a group of vitamin B. It is contained in the fresh vegetables (beans, spinate, Tomatoes, etc.) and in the liver and kidneys of animals. In humans, in addition, a germline bowel. For medical purposes (for instance, the intoxication caused by drugs protivoopujolevami) using synthetic folic acid. The folic acid appears. The body was returned to tetragidrofolieva a kofermentom many metabolic processes. Above all it catalyzes the transfer odnouglerodistah fragments in the synthesis and purinov pirimidinov, and hence needed for the education of RNA and DNA. Its deficit violates mitoticescoe dividing cells, their maturation and function. Insufficient folic acid (vitamin and V_12) leads to megaloblastna anaemia. Her preparations to appoint macrocitarna and pernitsiosna (with vitamin V_12) anemiah.
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) can be found in large quantities in products of plant origin (fruit trees, cabbage, lemons, oranges, fruit, fruit, berries, pine, etc.). A small quantity is contained in the liver, brain, muscles animals. For medical purposes vitamin C is synthetic means. Under normal circumstances, need daily adult in ascorbic acid is 70-100 mg, its main effects is the participation in the regulation �кислительно-восстано вительных processes, as ascorbic acid easily in degidroaskorbinovu and back, doniruya ackzeptiruya or two protons (okislya or restoring the substrates). Vitamin C activates the internal glands secreting, regulates all types of exchange, the coagulation of the blood, tissue regeneration, education steroid hormones, collagen synthesis, capillary permeability, etc. Ascorbic acid, has a stimulating effect on the organism as a whole, increases its adaptive capacity, resistance to infections. Vitamin C added to some противовоспалительны м and other available forms of treatment (aspirin plus C UPS aspirin, vitamin C, efferalgan with vitamin C, etc.).
The fat-soluble vitamins combines vitamins A, D, E and K.
The biological role of fat-soluble vitamins to a large extent due to their involvement in the smooth functioning of the cell, zitoplazmaticakih membranes.
Vitamin A and its synthetic analogues and homologues cited retinoidam-derivative retinoeva acid. Biologically active forms of vitamin A are retinol, retinal and the retinoower acid. Vitamin A (retinol) can be found in animal products - rabiem fat, butter oil, aicnom yolk, liver some fish (cod, sea bass, etc.) and marine animals (whale, walrus, seal). The plant foods retinol is not found. But many of them (carrots, spinach, lettuce, Parsley, green onions, mallow, peppers, black currant, bilberries, fruit, peaches, apricots, etc.) contain carotene, the provitamin A, from which the body produces retinol. Vitamin A regulates processes orogovenia, education, and the fat in the skin (secret sebaceous glands) to be necessary for the normal growth of hair maintain immunity, has been involved in the protection of antitumor organism. Retinal provides the light and tsvetovospriatia, retinol and retinoower acid involved in the synthesis of vitamin A-zawisimah glikoproteinov. In clinical practice, use preparations containing vitamin A naturally occurring (such as fish oil) and synthetic (acetate retinol and retinol palmitat). Regarding vitamin A appointed preventive and curative doses. Preventive dose set on the basis of the daily needs of the human body : for adults-1 mg, for pregnant and lactating women, 1.2-1.4 mg, for the children, depending on age, ranging from 0.4 to 1 mg, treatment for the condition. The testimony is hypothetical and avitaminosis A, some of the eye diseases and skin infections (stomach, burns, wounds, etc.). Applied to the treatment of rickets, malnutrition, acute respiratory illnesses, for the prevention of concrements in the intestine and urinary tract, etc.
Vitamin D is now referred to two fat, close to the Chemical Engineering and Operation substances, ergocalciferol (vitamin D_2) and kolecalziferol (vitamin D_3). The main characteristic of these compounds is the ability to prevent and treat rickets, as a result of which they are sometimes called protivorahiticakimi vitamins. Vitamin D_2 in small quantities in food : aicnom yolk, butter oil, milk, calf, plants. Vitamin D_3 formed in the human skin as a result of sunlight. Provitamin kolecalziferola is 7-degidroholesterol. The biological activity vitamins and D_2 D_3 little different, as both the body probably become calzitriol is an active metabolite of vitamin D. Proved that the tissue-specific receptors, ligand which is calzitriol.
The basic premise of the vitamin D is its involvement in the metabolism of calcium. It promotes absorption of calcium in the digestive tract activates his deposition in the bones and prevents rezorbtion of bone tissue. Currently, the vitamin D viewed not only as a vitamin, but as hormone, dealing with the hormone paraszczytovidna gland concentration of calcium ions in the plasma. Vitamin D regulates the content of phosphorus in the body. Applied vitamin D for the prevention and treatment of rickets and bone disease caused by violations of calcium (osteomalacia and some forms of osteoporosis).
The so-called "Vitamin E" is a series of compounds (tocopherol), close to the nature of the chemical and biological action. Chief among them is D-alfa-tokoferol. Tokoferola contained in the green parts of plants, especially in the young sprouts plants, tokoferolami rich in vegetable oils (sunflower, cotton, maize, peanut, soybean, oblepichowoe). A number of them can also be found in meat, fat, eggs, milk. Vitamin E is an endogenous factor protivookislitionam (antiauxidantom), inhibiting the peroxide oxidation of lipids of cellular membranes. Participates in biosynthese Hema and proteins, cell proliferation, in cm breath and other critical processes of cell metabolism. Synthetic drug vitamin E (tokoferola acetate), together with other antioxidants (emoksipin etc.), used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, Eye diseases, etc. The application is tokoferola acetate in geriatric practice. Vitamin E designate the muscle distrofiah, dermatomiositah, amiotroficescom side EMG, human menstrual cycle, the threat of termination of pregnancy, etc.
In some cases, vitamins reinforce have their physiological effects; So fall under the influence of vitamin E permeability receptacles potenziruetsa ascorbic acid mutually stimulation increased blood zianokobalaminom and folic acid.
In some cases, a combination of reduced toxicity of vitamins, for instance, Vitamin D can be postponed in the face of vitamin A. At the same time, vitamins can display and antagonistic properties : nikotinova acid inhibits lipotroponoe of choline. Actively participating in various biochemical processes vitamins in combination have a strong and diverse biological effects. Available large number of domestic and foreign combined vitamin products in different medicinal forms : tablets, bubbly tablets, coated tablets, capsules, syrups. Many of them are multi containing a wide range of not only vitamins, but also a variety of macro-and micronutrients (copper, iron, zinc, cobalt, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, chromium, etc.).