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Nootropa (neirometabolicescie stimulants)
The groupThe term "nootropa" (from colleagues. "" Noos "" - thinking, Mind and "tropos" seeking), was first proposed in 1972 after acceptance as a medical practice pyracetam. According to WHO, nootropona drugs are those that have a direct impact aguirutee of attendance improve memory and mental activity, as well as increasing resistance to the brain aggressive influences.
By nootropam are primarily piracetam and its homologues (aniracetam, oksirazetam, pramiracetam, etirazetam etc.), piriditol (engjefabol) atefen (meklofenoxat), as well as some drugs, structurally related to gamma-aminomaslana acid (aminalon, sodium oxybutyrate, pantogam, fenibut, pikamilon etc.), and some others.
The most important aspects of memory are starting intellectual and mnesticeskih functions, the ability to learn and to improve memory. They are, to varying degrees, encourage the transfer of the institution in the central neuron, facilitate the transfer of information between the hemispheres brain improve energy and the blood brain.
A typical feature enhancement is antigipoksica activity. The ability to reduce the need tissues of oxygen and increase vulnerability to hypoxia is to a greater or lesser degree for all nootroponah drugs. Antihypoxic expressed by the sodium oxybutyrate.
Mode of Action of nootroponah studied enough. Piracetam is on the chemical structure similar to GABA and can be seen as derivative of the amino acids, which is the main central neiromediatorom braking. However, in the body of piracetam in GABA is not converted and the GABA in the brain after pyracetam not growing. However, in relatively high doses and reintroduce piracetam to strengthen Gamkergicakie brake processes. Thus, it is not excluded Gamkergicakie elements and the importance of Gamkergicakih processes in the mechanism of action pyracetam. There is the likely impact nootroponah funds for other neiromediatorne of the brain, including the glutamatergicakie processes on the synthesis and release of norarenalina. Influenced pyracetam atefena and increasing concentration of acetylcholine at the synapse and density holinergicakih receptors. Some nootropa increase in the brain serotonin. It will be especially important in the mechanism of memory is the impact on metabolic and atherosclerosis processes in the nerve cell : Activation of protein synthesis and RNA, improved glucose utilization, the increased synthesis of APF, and antihypoxia �ембраностабилизирую��ее and the others.
Nootropona tools are widely used in various fields of medicine, including in the hospital (developmental delays) and geriatric (Hévíz dementia, Alzheimer's disease) practice.