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The groupSedatives funds (from Lat. Sedatio-comfort), drugs that have a general calming effect on the central nervous system. Sedative (minor), the effect is to reduce the response to various external stressors and slight decrease in daily activity.
Regarding the group regulate the central nervous system, increasing the braking or lowering of this kind. Typically, they heighten the pills (offensive facilitate and deepen the natural sleep), analgesics and other means oppressive central nervous system.
The sedative will include bromine products, such as sodium chloride and potassium chloride, bromistaya gel, as well as preparations made from medicinal plants (Valerian, desertsrnika, passion, Nokwha etc.).
Bromides started to be applied in medicine for a long time, back to the 19th century. Impact of bromine salts to the top of the nervous been studied in detail I. P. Pavlov and his students to experiment by nervousness dogs, and the healthy animals.
According to the school Y. Pavlov, the primary effect of bromine related to the ability to concentrate and processes in the cortex, restoring breached balance between performance and the institution, especially in the high-anxiety agent. The bromine depends on the type of higher nervous activity and functional status of the nervous system. In experimental conditions shows that in order to get the same therapeutic effect animals with weak nervous type requires a smaller dose of bromine, the animals with a strong kind of nervous activity. Moreover, as a rule, the smaller the severity dysfunctions in the cortex, The lower dose required to correct these violations.
Dependence value therapeutic doses bromides on the type of nervous activity has been confirmed in the clinic. It is therefore necessary to take into account the type and condition of the nervous system in the selection of individual dose.
Anti bromine used in a variety of neurotic disorders as sedatives. Bromides also have protivosudorojna activity, but as противоэпилептически х , which is currently being used very rarely (see �ротивоэпилептически�� means).
It should be borne in mind that feature bromine salts is a slow withdrawal from the body (concentration in plasma decreased by half in about 12 days). Bromides accumulate in the body and can cause chronic poisoning (bromizma), the overall incidence slowing, apathy, human memory the emergence of a characteristic skin rash (bromica acne), irritation and inflammation mucous membranes, etc.
The medical use has been drugs derived from medicinal raw materials, rhizomes and roots Valerian, Flower top desertsrnika grass, shoots with leaves grass passion. Usage of vegetable origin of the Member States in their respective essential oils; alkaloids, etc.
Herbal Valerian contain essential oil consisting of esters (including alcohol and camphor izovalerianova acid), borneol, organic acids (including valerianovu), as well as some alkaloids (valerin and hatinin), tanning agents, sugar, etc. Valerian to moderate sedation increased the sleeping - has also inflammatory properties.
The biologically active substances comprising the drugs are desertsrnika flavonolove glycosides, essential oils, of low alkaloids, saponins, tanning agents.
There is a combination of drugs (validol, valokordin etc.), which contain various reassuring substance.
Despite the availability of modern tranquilizers, sedatives continued to be widely used in medical practice. The testimony to the appointment of sedative drugs are high nervous anxiety, irritability, wegeto-sosudistye disorders, sleep disturbance, neuroses (early treatment), incl. cardioneurozy, neurozopodobne state. Compared with anxiolitikami and drugs, especially derivatives benzodiazepines, sedatives (especially vegetable) are less pronounced calming effect, at the same time, they are characterized by good tolerance and the absence of serious side effects (not a miorelaxation, crutches, sleepiness, as well as recreational, psychological and physical dependence). All this is widely used in everyday outpatient practice.
Previously, as a sedative used magnesium sulfate providing according to the different pharmacological effects on the organism. The ingestion magnesium sulfate poorly absorbed from the digestive tract and acts as slabitelnoe and jelchegonnoe resort. In Injecting a magnesium sulfate reduces neuronal excitability and has a dampening effect on the central nervous system (manifested sedative, protivosudorojnam, in high doses, narkoznam effect), also miotroponoe, skin, and gipotenzivne antiaritmicescoe effect. The impact on the cardiovascular system is gipotenzive (reduced mostly higher AD) and antiaritmicski (with paroxizmah ventricular tachycardia type "pirouette") effects.
Many experimental and clinical studies carried out since the mid-1980s the twentieth century, demonstrated the important role of magnesium in the regulation of the nervous, cardiovascular and other systems of the body (see macro and trace elements). It has been shown that a lack of magnesium in the body, resulting in increased cell excitability, especially muscle and brain, to the human metabolic (energy exchange, etc.), including in the central nervous system, to a breach of neuromuscular transmission and others believed that one of the effects of magnesium in the CNS is regulation of neuronal excitability and braking processes nerve impulses, that is a dampening effect on the central nervous system at elevated anxiety nervous system, which is particularly evident sedative effect. Anti magnesium, offsetting the deficit cation in the body, may reduce symptoms such as irritability, increased nervous anxiety, sleep disturbance, etc. It is time to correct conditions resulting from the shortage of magnesium in the body, using an efficient and safe drugs for oral delivery, vsasawatesa well in the gut (for example, Magne V_6, composed of magnesium and pyridoxine, getting magnesium intake of blood and its penetration into cells).
Sedative effect, in addition to the above funds, the anxiolitiki (see anxiety) H_1-antigistaminne drugs I generation (see H_1-antigistaminne tools) and a number of drugs from different pharmacological groups.